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姓名里最忌讳的36个字,你中枪了吗?******

原标题:姓名里最忌讳的36个字,你中枪了吗?

姓名里最忌讳的36个字,你中枪了吗?

1

谐音为滑,有可能会为人处事比较圆滑一点,从其意上把此字拆开来看为,人、匕、十,容易出刀伤,最后十字可以理解成为医院,还有可能是手术等,命主有偏头疼或脑部疾病等。

如果是战争年代那么叫这个字则不为凶了,或者从军的人有这个字在从军期间也没事。

通常名字中有华字的人,男人其长相都会不错,中年过后易发胖,脸型以长圆为主,女人以稍圆为主,也易发胖。

2

笑字上面是双竹头,在婚姻上易出现二次之意,下面是个夭字,如果是女人此字为妖字,传说名字中带此字的女人这世为人多数前世为精灵所修人形,其笑字特别是小孩子最好是不要用这个字。

通常名字中有笑字的女人,长相多数会比较妩媚,吸引力强,脸为下尖形。

3

此字为鲜艳的艳字,亦常会在女孩的名字里出现,比如像什么春艳了,秋艳了,之类的,此字与燕同音。但本质却与艳不同,此艳字左半部分为丰字,丰字主要主财,如果此字要是和生肖月份配置的好的话叫此字的则会有财,主要是表现在年轻时,属羊的女孩名字里出现此字会主心眼少,因为其羊少了上面的两点,命运也会很一般,此字的右半部分为色字,也就是说名字里出现这个字的女孩如果生日是6月到9月的则会主心性活,感情异性缘多,长相也会不错,且身材多数丰满,如果时局不好的,会有主动去勾引男人和有婚外情的发生。如果是生在冬季则主感情会冷一些了。总体评价此字用在名字里为很一般的字,不是太理想。通常名字中有“艳”字的女孩子身高会在164左右,身材多数较丰满,脸型为长型,瓜子型居多。眼带媚。

4

此字可以直接解为,走刀口,主凶,也就是说叫此字的人很有可能要在刀口下走一遭。这个字还主命主本人外向,交际广,有时好打架,脾气暴,急。

5

一字为一横之字,易出横事,(不过从政从军者要好一些),其一字又是死字头,生字尾,这一点也是不看好,一字在性情上易出现个性强,不听劝,万里有个一,万一之事,侥幸度较差一些。

此字不推荐为姓名常用字。身材胖者居多,横着长自然胖了,不适合开车。脸型方正者多。

6

“奕”字,上半部分为亠意为出头早和有职位,再往下为“办”字形,意为办事有能力,有人帮。要注意的是要有头脑才行。

最下面的就是大字了,意为把上面的亦的能量又加大了一部分。其奕字属于姓名中的辅助字,起一个加大加强的作用,总体看此字属上吉字。

男人多数会主权,长相严厉一些,心大之人。脸型为标准稍长方型。

7

其斌字为文字与武字组成,通常理解为文武双全。此字中的文字旁意为此人出头早,有头脑,有一定的权力,此字中的武字意为命主脾气硬朗,说话厉害。

但是此字存在着一个自我矛盾的问题,也就是说文字和武字是不能兼容的。就像是秀才遇上了当兵的一样,有理讲不清,再说了在现实中,武力应该为第一的,说的算。

可是此字却把文字放在了前面,还组成了一起为一个斌字,因此可以断命主容易自我矛盾,或外表文质彬彬,内心却较为火爆。

说话底气足,有领导能力,好发号施令,长相中上,皮肤较好。

8

梅是在冬季里开的一种有点冷艳的花。女性多漂亮,引人注目,但孤傲情困,婚姻多不顺,既有飘香之梅,也有枯败之梅。女人名字带此字,在婚姻感情上波动性大。特别是生在梅花开的季节。生在夏秋季节名字里也有带梅字的,则说明花无开。主感情来的晚,或没有真感情受到伤害一类。梅字还是分南北方的,也就是北方人在冬季梅花开时名字中叫梅才是真正的梅,会主长相好,而南方的就不是了。因为梅有冬梅一说,其梅字为一木字和一每字。

名字里出现此字者还会主女孩子稍胖一些,还主有点懒。当然这些是要去和生日属性相对的,并不是每个人都这样,此字还与煤和没、霉字谐音,因此叫此字者命主多数会比较辛苦,特别是30岁以前。

9

此字为三金之字,头小脚大上下分散结构。品字形的字(磊、晶、品、)做事注意力不集中,呈三角形,婚姻上是不看好的,有三分之相。近年来五行五格姓名学兴起,命里缺金的人在起改名时,命名师都会给选这个字,不论是男名女名用此的字多,很多商店铺名也多用这个字,这样一来就造成了此字被大量使用已至泛滥,有运的字也没运了,相互挤压竞争,在事业上好变动不稳定,性情上不好管,三金太重易引导碰伤,砸伤,有一个朋友家的孩子名字当中就有这个“鑫”字,基本上每年都会被砸伤,最近一次还把手指甲给砸掉了,此字现不推荐姓名常用字。

10

谐音上为辛,有辛苦之意,为新,有新生之意。新生之意放在感情婚姻上是不看好的,一新就要变,一变就要乱。欣字本身为欠斤之字,就是欠斤量,欠火候,易掉链子,其欣字的左半部份为斤字,此字为“斧”字尾,主凶,其欣字的右边部份为欠字,有欠意,主累,此人字与土为坎字,特别是土年就容易造成有坎。通常名字中带欣字的女孩在长相上通常都会不错,脸型稍有点长形,算是好看了。此字用在女孩子名字中易造成感情婚姻不好,不好管,个性太强。

11

亮字是上下结构,其亮字的上半部份为高字的上半部份也就是高不全,不全的高字,只有高字头,只能出名一时,也就是在有好运的情况下露露头而已,其亮字的上半部又为一个言字少了两横,不全的言字,不喜欢说话,有苦说不出。其亮字的下半部份为沈字的右边也就是沉字尾,其沉字尾里还有一个几字,容易多变,这样看的话其亮字就不看好了,上面出风头,下面却要沉,有前运主其短,而后运却不看好。体型瘦者居多,长相少兴,父母家境都会较不错。

12

雅字的左半部份为牙字,牙大家都知道是用来吃东西的,也就是具有破坏之意,容易主到事业和婚姻上的矛盾加重,有腐蚀之意,“雅”字的右半部份为“隹”字,此字有“住”字形,住为停住之意,不利于发展,这个字是前面破坏,后面停住,不看好。

雅字本身在谐音上,有,哑、压,之意,有苦说不出,压力大。通常名字中带有雅字的女人皮肤一般,有的易发黑。体质发弱。长相一般。

13

也是品字形的字,森字算是品字形的字当中最看好的一个字了,此字多数与佛有缘,有福份。

出名者居多,品字形的三分之字森字在其婚姻感情上易有波动,男人有森者会多数出现二太太,女人为森者会以多情为主,森字在性情上会为办事果断之人,具有号召力,喜唱歌。

通常名字中有森字的男人身高会在175左右,身材较魁梧。皮肤一般,不过其长相都会不错。脸型为稍长。

14

其振字为姓名中的常用字,此字为左右结构。说起此字还有一段渊源,有一次在为朋友测字时,一个朋友来考我,说请你用我亲亲名字中的一个“振”字来测他出了什么事,我一口说出,有牢狱灾,当时我的那个朋友感到不可思议,怎么会这么准,后来在电视新闻和媒体上也看到好多带振字犯事的人。下面我们来看一下振字的解法,其振字的左半部是个扌旁,提手旁是个动性大的偏旁,有事好动手,好惹事,提手惹事又易遇到反手,这样就容易被抓,振字的右半部份是个辰字,在音上不好,有沉意,两下一综合这个字不太好,尤其是犯事是很难逃脱法网的,名字中有此字者脾气易不好,急性子,做事利索,技巧性强的人。通常名字中带有振字的男人身高多数会在173至183之间,身材魁梧,长相以严肃者居多。

15

其丽字为姓名中的常用字,多数为女孩子姓名用字,此字为上下结构,丽字的上半部份为一个“一”字,也是一横,字头有横压运,事业上易起步晚,丽字的下半部份为两个月字的不全之符,感情上易出现不圆满,也为不全的“目”字,视力多数会不好,丽字是一个与季节有关的字,如果是出生在春夏两季的女孩名字中有丽字的长相会相对要比出生在秋冬季节的女孩漂亮,因为丽得起来,丽字综合起来看为人和气,好交,人缘好。通常名字中带有丽字的女孩子身高多数会在158至167之间,脸型以稍圆型,长圆型居多,皮肤好,灵感强。

16

其“嘉”字如果按取大优先的方式来拆分的话是一个“喜”字和一个“力”字组成,力字是刀字出了头,有破坏之意,力字本身也是破坏,这样的话就是破喜了,对婚姻不好。按平常法来拆份嘉字,上半部为一个吉字,吉字主命主家境好,下面为一个加字,加字主命主本人做事力度大,易我行我素,性格强,不好管,学业一般,不会太理想。嘉字综合起来看有两口一力一士,说话有力度,从事权力工作较好,有很好的管理统筹能力。脸型长圆型,瓜子形者居多,外语好。

17

“哲”字在音上有折音,在字上有“折”意,折上面为口,折音和折意易导致名字有此字的男孩子在上学期间不好好学习,不好管,甚者易顶撞师长,刀光剑影,好打架,脾气不好,事业上有折,挫折多,辛苦。

折下口易导致名字中有此字的人,说话不中听,伤人,说话哼,易得罪人,经过长期的研究分析,综合起来看此字并不是一个十分好的字,此字对事物有很强的破坏作用,现在用者也是太多已泛滥,重字率太高。

长相中等,皮肤易发黑。

18

志字的上半部份是个“士”字,下半部份是个“心”字,心被士压在了底下,事业上受压迫,压力大,士有士兵,小卒之意,心被此压易遇小人坏事,压运,不能很好的放开发展自己,心字暴露在士字下面感情上易变动,不稳定,易被动受伤,志有志气一说,立志者,心为累,事为急,意为大,综合起来看此字是一个变性大的字被运性强,心被士压,易有志难伸,事不好做。

口才好,皮肤好。

19

“文”字的上半部为“亠”部事业上出头早,聪明好学,下半部为一个相互交差的错号,做事易自我矛盾,相互纠缠,“文”字是一个好上火的字,在性格上易导致急性子,脾气不好,做事不计较后果,在身体上易产生与上火有关的毛病,要注意,牙,咽喉等火在线的毛病,在感情上“文”字易导致脾气上不合产生的不稳定因素和不知足因素,综合起来看此字是一个动性,急性大的字,说话直而愣,言语易过激。

男女长相基本上都为中上。

20

“颖”字的左半部份为上下结构,颖字的来历取自一种果实“颖果”,颖字本身有禾有页也为果意。

其颖字整体结构为三分之字,也就是颖字的左半部份为一个匕字和一个禾字,上下为两个字形,右半部份为一个页字,这样形成了三分,在感情上易出现第三者。

颖字的上半部为一个匕字,在身体上易有刀伤,手术,性情上脾气急,好强,说话快,易无心得罪人,下为禾,禾上为匕为刀,事业压力大,颖字的右半部份为页字,因财而伤脑。

综合起来看“颖”字,颖在音上有影一音,做事易成空,感情不好,对事物喜欢捕风捉影,猜疑心重,长相清气,好以严肃表情示人。

21

衡字的左半部为双人旁,人缘好,做事与人合作好,若是属性为马,猴,狗更为好一些,其衡字的中间部份为一个鱼字头和一个大字,财好,事业能做大,鱼者喜水,异性缘好,吸引力强,大字为晚婚的象征,其衡字的右半部份为一个“一”字和一个“丁”字,一丁做事扎实,一字在此为恒心专一,丁字为扎实,停住,起平衡作用。综合起来看“衡”字,做事平衡有度,衡安身体好,利于事业,财运。男人长相厚实,女人长相较为好看,眼光有媚。

22

日为阳,最为亮,月为阴,阴为黑,黑白分明的字。名字中有“明”字的人做事时多不喜欢争功,也就是说自己做的事,好让别人把功劳给占去。“明”字是一个分出生时间的字,如果天明,白天出生的人叫明字为正符,特别是刚天明时,如果是晚上出生的人叫明字就不符了。男人的名字中有明字的,婚后易老婆当家,女人名字中带明字,婚姻辛苦操心。综合起来看“明”字,明者自清,清者自明,做事却很难清明,好让人误会,因为做到明者实在是太难,明字为日月齐,阴阳全。处事为人的度把握的较好,名声在外,从政好。男人长相易发胖,女人长相易生男人相,喜好音乐。

23

君为王者气,好向别人发号施令,“君”字的上半部份为一个“尹”字。

此字为“伊”字的“人”部首没有了,伊人去,感情上易失恋,君字的下半部份为一个“口”字,能说会道之人,具备统管能力的口才,口在下,易受到别人私下的议论。综合“君”字,男人有此字脾气不好,学业不太好,不好管,有的好惹事,感情上不稳定,君者多女人,女人名字中带君字的男人脾气,有的长相也好为男相,内心好强,不服输,婚姻上不好。男人长相脸型多为国字脸,女人易生男人相,长相有的威严,过于庄重。

24

芳字与香相合成为芳香,吸引力强,异性缘好,追求的人多,会较早的涉及恋爱,“芳”字上半部份为“艹”字头,与出生月份相连,女孩子生在春夏秋初者,长相比生于冬天者漂亮。不过前者感情上不如后者。“芳”字的下半部份为“方”字,为人聪明,做事有方,个性强,脾气上不太好,易用脑过度,头部上易出毛病。综合起来看“芳”字,芳者多数只是好于一时,因为芳香只是扑鼻一阵,不能长久,事业上易常变换,感情上心浮不好定。

长相中上,脸型以瓜子脸为多,皮肤好的少。

25

左半部分为一个“女”字,字的首位阳宫为女,在家庭婚姻中易当家做主,娜字的中间部份为一个“刀”字,刀字当中又有一个“二”字,脾气不好,身体上易有手术刀伤,娜字的右半部分为一个“阝”旁,耳根子软,看上去高傲不可攀,不想搭理人,其实内心软弱,依赖性强。

综合起来看娜字在事业上易有长辈贵人相助,多数好从事娱乐业,感情上不稳定,眼高,叛逆。长相好,身材好,学习不好。

26

刚字的左半部份为一个“冈”字,破网一张,因为冈字为网字少了一个错号,事业上不易成,好变换工作,财上花销大,不会理财,漏网之鱼,自己做事不好成,“冈”字又为风字的变体,一个流动的字,喜欢到处跑动,好说大话,生活中的乱事多,“刚”字的右半部分为一个“刂”立刀旁,在身体上易有刀伤手术,综合起来看此字是立刀割破了网,自己伤自己,一个矛盾的字,感情上长久性较差一些。

长相中上,皮肤有点黑。

27

静字通常是叫静不静,因为静字的左半部分为“青”字,青者为生长之意,动态,不静,静字的右半部分为“争”字,争者更不静了,再一个中国的有些汉字是叫什么不什么的,定者不定,因为定字是走字底,叫稳不稳,因为稳字是急字边,综合起来看“静”字在事业上易变动,青争生长不定性,在感情上静字多数不好,争斗性强,脾气不好,青字好喜新厌旧。

长相较好,皮肤好。

28

琴字的上半部分为两个王字,两个王子两夫,两个王字在婚姻上是不好的,易出现两次婚姻,两个王字还易脾气不好,当家做主,两王不能相容,做事又易自我矛盾,琴字的下半部为一个“今”字,“今”字是“令”字少了一点,不成令,虽有两王却不得令,说的算也只是一时而已,不能长久。综合起来看琴字在事业上为权好,有一定的管理才能,不过琴字节事业辛苦,人缘方面不是太好,好与别人争斗,有艺术才能,有的则高傲,好自以为是。

长相中上,皮肤不是太好,抽烟者居多。

29

玲字的左半部分为一个“王”字,王者气,脾气不好,好发号施令管人,玲字的右半部分为一个“令”字,有王有令在家中说的算,令字在事业上做管理,领班,教师类不错。

综合起来看“玲”字在婚姻上多数为晚婚者,通常多在30岁后结婚,有较好的修养,气质高,不过在身体上易有磕碰伤。长相中上,皮肤好。

30

伟字的左半部分为一个“亻”旁,事业上易在人多的地方发展,企业,学校,军队,国家政府机关等,自己独立做事不易成功。伟字的右半部分为“韦”字,没有草字头的“苇”字,感情上易出现不稳定的情况,身体上女孩多弱的多,男人做事犹豫的多,韦字有较好的文字写作能力。综合起来看伟字在性格上多数为人热情,不喜欢占小便宜,做事公正性好,伟者有大意,好显示自己。长相中等,皮肤较白,身材肥胖者较少。

31

其琳字中的王字易主叫者脾气不好,管理欲强,内心好强,不服输,其琳字的右半部份为林字,林字为双木,双木易主婚姻不好,婚姻上来的晚,婚后与对方脾气不合,琳字又有林中王一说,在事业上适合自己经营,开公司,管一方人,音上通霖易引导身体上肾,肠胃不好。

长相较好,大眼睛,男人性格,有一部份易有吸烟喝酒的习惯。

33

宇字的上半部份为宝盖头,也为家字头,上有护顶做为保护,做事易有贵人相助,家庭观念强,易受家庭束缚,有的家庭压力较大,宇字的下半部分为一个“于”字,“于”字为“干”字形,实干者,在事业上实干,为人老实,机会好者可成为实力强大的成功者,企业家。

综合起来看“宇”字,名字中带宇字的人多数心大,看的开,爱情专一,事业上前期会有点辛苦。长相中等,好打扮显示自己。

34

其“丹”字做为姓名中的常用字,多数会在女孩子姓名中出现,丹字为独立字形混合结构。丹字本身为一个不全的“舟”字,也就是残舟,在女孩子的名字当中主要表现在感情上不圆满,婚姻不好,坎坷多,与父母易离多聚少,与其一方沟通不好,易独自离家在外地生活,丹字在性格上多数是急性子,义气,不怕事,综合起来看丹字有其沉舟一说,沾其水易其败,火炼久纯为丹。

通常名字中带有丹字的女人身高多数会在158至168之间,长相好,皮肤好。

35

浩字的左半部分为一个“氵”旁,水主动,水主柔,水者性软,水者聪灵,学习只要稍努力就可以取的好成绩,主动主柔心其不定,做事耐心不够,浩字的右半部分为一个“告”字,告者能说,言语表达能力强,上土下口,言语中实在话多,发音浑厚深重。

综合起来看浩字在其字音上有“耗”意,做事易过格,度量控制不好。

36

此字为水青之字,左右结构。清水,其清字左半部份中的水字易主叫者出现肠胃上的毛病,不过头脑多灵活,其清字中的右半部分为青字,青字本身有道性,多数会与佛道有缘,懂玄学易理,青字为主月之字,叫者主见性强,青字又有青春之意,清字是个与季节性相联的字,也就是说此字适合出生在春季的人使用为最佳,其它季节次之,清字主出灵性,因为是水青,清字的事业运是连绵不断型的,清字的爱情运有喜新厌旧之意,因为一旧就老,是与青字不符的。皮肤较好,身材中等,长相为福相。

Paralympic champion Liu grateful to her "eyes" Xu******

By Sportswriters Yao Youming, Wang Ze and Zhao Yingbo

XI'AN, China, Oct. 24 (Xinhua) -- Liu Cuiqing, a visually impaired Chinese Paralympic champion, pocketed her second medal at the 11th China's National Games for Persons with Disabilities on Sunday.

On Sunday, Liu clocked 12.45 seconds to win a silver after Zhou Guohua from Guangdong in women's 100m T11 event.

With guide Xu Donglin, the 29-year-old secured her first gold medal of the major event on Saturday by winning the women's 400m T11 final.

Having won four golds in the 10th edition of the Games, Liu faced many troubles in the ongoing 11th edition of the Games.

After the Tokyo Paralympics, Liu was exhausted and had few normal training in quarantine. Furthermore, Xu suffered a torn meniscus in his right knee just ahead of the Tokyo Olympics.

When the duo entered the stadium on Saturday, Xu helped Liu stand on the block quickly and the pair finished a quick warm-up. When the 400m event was about to begin, Xu guided Liu to get ready carefully. He encouraged Liu by patting her on her shoulder.

Liu opened an early gap in the race, which no one was able to narrow. At last, the elite Paralympic athlete crossed the finish line in one minute and 1.21 seconds.

Liu began to take up the track and field training when her running talent was discovered in school.

Xu was a professional athlete. When he intended to retire eight years ago, he was selected as the guide of Liu.

The 1.83-meter-tall Xu was shy while meeting the 1.65m-tall Liu in the year 2013.

But after thousands of practices, the duo collaborated better and better. Now Liu can sprint or turn left smoothly at the special signals sent by Xu through the rope between them.

Liu said that if she could have three days to see, she would look at her partner firstly. The people around the duo told Liu that Xu is a handsome man.

"In my opinion, Donglin is my elder brother. I'd like to thank him for bringing me to podium in major events since 2013," Liu told Xinhua.

"We have cooperated for eight years and got many medals in national and international events. This brought me a sense of achievement," said Xu.

After the long and tough season, the golden pair will have a good rest each.

"We will part for several months. My knee injury needs time to recover. I'd like to create more better results in Paris Paralympic 2024 with Cuiqing," 32-year-old Xu noted. Enditem

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日常仪式的惊人力量:为什么生活需要有仪式感******

毕业典礼,婚礼,还有其他无数的生活仪式,现在的人已经生活在一个被仪式感包围的世界。即将到来的双11活动,何尝不也是一种变相的狂欢仪式呢?为什么人们不厌其烦地重复这些仪式?你想过没有。研究者认为,仪式活动让人类大脑相信存在稳定和可预测性,是“对抗不确定性和焦虑的习惯性缓冲器”。

Rituals come in many different forms and are practised in cultures the world over, but why have they become such an important part of our lives?

When the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski visited the Trobriand Islands in Papua New Guinea in the early 20th Century, he noted the elaborate preparations fishermen would make before setting out to sea. They would carefully paint their canoes with black, red and white paint, chanting spells as they did so. The vessel would be struck with wooden sticks, the bows stained with red ochre and crew members would adorn their arms with shells.

当人类学家布罗尼斯瓦夫·马林诺夫斯基(Bronislaw Malinowski)在20世纪初访问巴布亚新几内亚的特罗布里安群岛(Trobriand Islands)时,他注意到,渔民出海前会做精心准备。他们会小心翼翼地在独木舟上涂上黑色、红色和白色颜料,边涂边念咒语。他们用木棒敲击船,把船头染成赭色,船员也用贝壳装点手臂。

Malinowski recorded a long list of ceremonies and rituals the islanders would perform before venturing out onto the open sea. But when the fishermen went out into the nearby calm lagoon, they did not use these rites. Malinowski concluded that the "magic" rituals performed by the islanders were a response to help them cope with the unpredictable might of the Pacific Ocean.

马林诺夫斯基记录了岛民们在冒险出海之前会进行的一长串仪式。但当渔民出海进入附近平静的泻湖时,他们不再使用这些仪式。马林诺夫斯基得出了这样的结论,岛民举行的“魔法”仪式是为了帮助他们应对太平洋不可预知的力量。

Later anthropologists have noted that fishermen in other parts of the world, such those engaging in deep sea fishing off the gulf coast of Texas and drifter fishing skippers in East Anglia, UK, were also prone to superstitions and rituals to help them cope with the uncertainty and dangers of their profession.

后来的人类学家注意到,世界其他地区的渔民,比如在德克萨斯州海湾沿岸从事深海捕鱼的渔民和英国东安格利亚的流刺网渔船船长,也容易产生迷信和坚持仪式,来帮助他们应对职业带来的不确定性和危险性。

But evidence points to the existence of rituals long before the 20th century. One of the earliest examples of a human ritual practice is thought to be a carving of a python in a cave in Botswana, Southern Africa, dating back 70,000 years. Thousands of stone spearheads in the cave were thought to have been burnt in a ritual, including some that had been intricately carved from red stone brought from hundreds of miles away. The archaeologists who made the discovery believe the destruction of the spearheads were part of ritualistic sacrifices to the python.

但有证据表明,早在很久很久以前,仪式就已经存在了。人类仪式实践的最早例子被认为是在非洲南部博茨瓦纳的一个洞穴中雕刻的一条蟒蛇,可以追溯到七万年前。据知,洞穴里的数千支石制矛头在一场仪式中被焚烧,其中一些矛头是用从数百英里外运来的红色石头精心雕刻而成。发现这一结果的考古学家认为,破坏矛头是对蟒蛇进行祭祀仪式的一部分。

But why have rituals been used for such a long time?

但是为什么仪式存在了这么长时间呢?

A ritual is defined by psychologists as "a predefined sequence of symbolic actions often characterised by formality and repetition that lacks direct instrumental purpose". Research identifies three elements of a ritual. First, it consists of behaviours that occur in fixed succession – one after another – and are typified by formality and repetition. Secondly, the behaviours have symbolic meaning and lastly, these ritualised behaviours generally have no obvious useful purpose.

心理学家将仪式定义为“一组预先设定好的象征性动作序列,通常以形式和重复为特征,缺乏直接的效用目的”。研究确定了仪式的三个要素。首先,它由固定连续发生的行为组成,一个接一个,并以形式和重复为典型;其次,这些行为具有象征意义;最后,这些仪式化的行为通常没有明显目的。

Rituals occur surprisingly often within our everyday lives. It's believed that we form rituals based on our values. For instance, people with Christian values christen their babies as a symbol of spiritual rebirth.

仪式感在我们的日常生活中经常发生。人类形成了基于价值观的仪式。例如,有基督教价值观的人给婴儿洗礼,作为精神重生的象征。

But rituals go further than helping us to live out our values. They may also make us less anxious.

但仪式的作用远不止帮助我们实现价值观。它们也可能让我们不那么焦虑。

Ritualistic practices can help to bring a degree of predictability to an uncertain future. They convince our brains of constancy and predictability as "ritual buffers against uncertainty and anxiety", according to scientists.

仪式性的做法有助于给不确定的未来带来一定程度的可预测性。科学家称,它们让人类大脑相信存在稳定和可预测性,是“对抗不确定性和焦虑的习惯性缓冲器”。

Studies show that the anxiety-reducing effect of rituals can apply to almost any high-pressure endeavour. In one entertaining experiment, researchers instructed participants to perform an anxiety-inducing task – to sing Don't Stop Believing (by the rock band, Journey) in front of strangers. The participants were separated into two groups, with one asked to perform a ritual beforehand (including sprinkling salt onto drawings they had created). The second group were given instructions about their performance and left to sit quietly.

研究表明,仪式减轻焦虑的效果几乎适用于任何高压工作。在一项有趣的实验中,研究人员指导参与者执行一项诱发焦虑的任务——在陌生人面前唱《不要停止相信》(由摇滚乐队Journey演唱)。参与者被分成两组,其中一组被要求事先进行一项仪式(包括在他们画的画上撒盐)。第二组被告知他们的表现,然后让他们安静地坐着。

The participants' heart rate, feelings of anxiety and performance of the song were measured to determine anxiety levels. "Participants who completed the ritual sang better, had significantly lower heart rates, and reported feeling less anxious than participants who had not performed the ritual," says Francesca Gino, head of the negotiation, organisations and markets unit at ‎Harvard Business School and co-author of the study.

研究人员通过测量参与者的心率、焦虑感和演唱程度来确定他们的焦虑程度。哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)谈判、组织和市场部门负责人、该研究的合著者弗朗西斯卡·吉诺(Francesca Gino)表示:“完成仪式的参与者唱得更好,心率明显更低,报告称,他们的焦虑感比没有进行仪式的参与者少。”

In another study involving 75 Hindu women in Mauritius, anxiety was triggered among the participants by asking them to prepare a speech for expert evaluation. All participants were fitted with a heart rate monitor and asked to complete surveys at the beginning and end of the experiment. Some of the participants were sent to a local temple to perform rituals before completing the second survey while the rest were asked to sit and relax.

在另一项涉及毛里求斯75名印度教妇女的研究中,实验人员要求她们准备一篇演讲,以供专家评估,这引发了参与者的焦虑。所有参与者都配备了心率监测器,并被要求在实验开始和结束时完成调查。在完成第二次调查之前,一些参与者被送到当地的寺庙进行仪式,而其余的则被要求坐下来放松。

Similar levels of anxiety were reported by both groups in the first survey. However, after the second survey, self-reported anxiety levels for the participants who performed the rituals were lower. The heart rate readings also confirmed that the participants who performed ritualistic actions had lower physiological anxiety.

在第一次调查中,两组报告的焦虑水平相似。然而,在第二次调查之后,进行仪式的参与者自我报告的焦虑水平较低。心率读数也证实,仪式行为的参与者生理焦虑程度较低。

Sports psychologists also propose that pre-performance rituals can confer benefits for athletes, such as better execution and possible reduction in anxiety levels. Rafael Nadal, winner of 20 Grand Slam singles titles, reportedly has almost as many rituals – 19 – which he uses before each match. In his 2012 autobiography, Rafa: My Story, Nadal explains that his rituals are "a way of placing myself in a match, ordering my surroundings to match the order I seek in my head."

运动心理学家还提出,赛前仪式可以给运动员带来好处,比如拥有更好的执行力,以及可能降低焦虑水平。据报道,曾赢得20个大满贯单打冠军的拉斐尔·纳达尔(Rafael Nadal)在每场比赛前都有19次这样的仪式。在他2012年的自传《拉法:我的故事》(Rafa: My Story)中,纳达尔解释说,他的仪式是“一种让自己置身于比赛中的方式,让周围的环境与我在脑海中寻找的顺序相匹配。”

Incidentally, the type of ritual doesn't appear to have a bearing on the reduction of anxiety. Gino adds that "even simple rituals can be extremely effective". Research suggests, paradoxically, that rituals involving pain, injury or trauma could hold some type of psychological advantage for those who perform them. For example, fire-walkers reported a higher level of happiness after they took part in this ritualistic ordeal.

顺便说一句,仪式的种类似乎对减少焦虑没有影响。吉诺说:“即使是简单的仪式也可能非常有效。” 矛盾的是,研究表明,涉及疼痛、伤害或创伤的仪式可能对那些进行这些仪式的人有某种心理优势。例如,参与过火(踏火)仪式的人说,在他们参加了这种仪式式的严酷考验后,他们的快乐水平更高。

There are also some indications that rituals can help us cope with some of the most challenging periods of our lives too, such as when grieving.

也有一些迹象表明,仪式也可以帮助我们应对生活中一些最具挑战性的时期,比如悲伤的时候。

End of life rituals can create stronger connections between the dying and their loved ones. In a 2014 study, researchers found that grief was lower among participants who performed personal rituals, like washing the car of the deceased every week. When we experience loss, we often feel a loss of control, so it's perhaps not surprising that rituals are used to create some semblance of order to regain control.

生命结束仪式可以在临终者和他们所爱的人之间建立更牢固的联系。在2014年的一项研究中,研究人员发现,进行个人仪式(比如每周为死者洗车)的参与者悲伤程度较低。当我们经历失去时,通常会感到失去了控制,所以仪式被用来创造一些表面上的秩序,来重新获得控制,这并不奇怪。

But the benefits of rituals also extend beyond the individual – they're evident in groups of people, too.

但仪式的好处也不仅仅局限于个人,在群体中也很明显。

Ritualistic behaviour can improve social bonding when we practise it collectively. "Having social networks has frequently been linked to wellbeing, and it is thought that rituals – frequent group gatherings – are particularly good at facilitating such networks," says Valerie van Mulukom, a psychologist at Coventry University in the UK and co-author of a study on the effect of secular rituals on social bonding.

当我们集体实践时,仪式性行为可以改善社会关系。英国考文垂大学(Coventry University)的心理学家、一项关于世俗仪式对社会关系影响的研究的合著者瓦莱丽-范-穆鲁科姆(Valerie van Mulukom)说:“拥有社会网络经常与幸福联系在一起,人们认为仪式特别擅长促进这种网络,比如频繁的团体聚会。”

Group rituals indicate that members are like-minded and share certain values, which promote an atmosphere of trust. For example, ritualistic chants have been shown to make football fans feel connected. And for singer-songwriter Beyoncé, saying a prayer in a circle with all her crew is a "spiritual practice" that leads to a perfect performance.

团体仪式表明成员有相同的想法和相同的价值观,这促进了信任。例如,有研究表明,仪式化的圣歌能让足球迷产生共鸣。对于创作型歌手碧昂丝(Beyoncé)来说,和所有工作人员围成一圈祈祷是一种“精神练习”,可以带来完美的表演。

"After participating in group rituals, many individuals report greater connection to others, in some cases even when just observing a ritual," says Johannes Karl, a PhD Student at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand who has studied how rituals affect social bonding and health.

新西兰惠灵顿维多利亚大学(Victoria University of Wellington)的博士生约翰内斯·卡尔(Johannes Karl)说:“在参加完集体仪式后,许多人都表示自己与他人的联系更紧密了,在某些情况下,甚至只是观察仪式。”卡尔研究了仪式如何影响社会联系和健康。

Research by van Mulukom into religious rituals in Brazil and the UK determined that taking part in rituals boosted pain thresholds and the ability to experience positive emotions, which increased social bonding in the group. But social bonding is not only limited to religious rituals. "We found that this effect occurs in both religious rituals and secular rituals," adds van Mulukom.

范-穆鲁科姆对巴西和英国的宗教仪式进行的研究表明,参加宗教仪式可以提高疼痛阈值和体验积极情绪的能力,从而增强群体中的社会联系。但是社会联系不仅仅局限于宗教仪式。“我们发现这种效应在宗教仪式和世俗仪式中都存在,”范-穆鲁科姆说。

Despite their many benefits, however, there are some downsides to rituals.

尽管仪式有很多好处,但也有缺点。

For groups, evidence implies that rituals can stimulate inter-group bias. For example, one study that gave groups of children bags of string and beads found that those who participated in collective rituals spent more time showing their materials to group members who took part in the rituals than with children who didn't belong to the group.

有证据表明,仪式可以刺激群体间的偏见。例如,有一项研究给一群孩子几袋绳子和珠子,发现那些参加集体仪式的孩子花更多时间向参加仪式的成员展示材料,而不是向不属于这个团体的孩子展示。

More disturbingly, group ritualistic endeavours, such as hazing, the cruel initiation ceremonies prevelant among some student groups or within the military, are extremely harmful. Hazing often involves degrading and humiliating the initiated and, on rare occasions, has resulted in death. Research on hazing prevention found that a commitment to cultural change is required to combat this type of harmful group ritual.

更令人不安的是,团体形式的仪式,如欺辱、残酷的入会仪式在一些学生团体或军队中盛行,是极其有害的。欺凌行为往往涉及人格侮辱,并在少数情况下导致死亡。关于防止欺凌的研究发现,要对抗这种有害的群体仪式,需要致力于文化变革。

Overall, research suggests that whether informal, secular, individual or group-based, rituals can have a positive effect on our wellbeing. Given that rituals have stress-busting qualities, Gino advises us to "adopt pre-performance rituals during stressful situations in your own lives, perhaps before giving a presentation at work, taking an exam, or having a difficult conversation." Like the fishermen of the Trobriand Islands, they could help steel you for the rough seas ahead.

总的来说,研究表明,无论是非正式的、世俗的、个人的还是团体的,仪式都能对我们的健康产生积极影响。鉴于习惯具有减压的特性,吉诺建议我们“当生活中碰到压力,比如要在工作中做报告、考试或进行艰难的对话之前,采用预演仪式,” 就像特罗布里安群岛的渔民一样,可以帮助你做好准备,应对前方汹涌的大海。

Economic Watch: UK business leaders confident in resilience, vitality of Chinese economy******

by Xinhua writer Sun Xiaoling

LONDON, Oct. 22 (Xinhua) -- Giant consumption driven by middle class, steady economic growth even amid the COVID-19 pandemic, big green investment collaboration under mutual desire for the planet ... These are among the reasons given by British business leaders for their confidence in resilience and vitality of the Chinese economy.

To reduce the impact of the pandemic, British luxury brand Rapport London shifted its focus to digital economy, seeing a strong double-digit percentage growth in its online business across the world, especially in the booming online market of China.

"The Chinese market is set to become the largest luxury market by 2025, and we want to be a part of this growth," said Oliver Rapport, CEO of Rapport London, in a recent interview with Xinhua.

"The importance of the Chinese market is paramount," said Rapport, adding that the luxury goods market in the Chinese mainland saw a significant boost in consumer spending in 2020 and is expected to grow continuously into the year of 2025.

Since his company has set up online stores on Chinese e-commerce platforms, including WeChat Mini-Programs and Alibaba, Rapport said he plans to open offline stores in collaboration with Chinese partners.

Founded in 1972, a London-based market research company Mintel tracked consumer spending across 34 markets worldwide.

"We're seeing a real confidence from a lot of reports that Mintel published in consumer spending going forward," said Matthew Nelson, newly appointed global CEO of Mintel, told Xinhua.

Nelson said the Chinese economy will see a continuous growth in 2021, which has been "driven on the back of the initiatives of technological self-reliance, lifting the living standard, social security, as well as the green economy."

Having taken a closer look at the latest trends in Chinese domestic spending, Nelson said: "We've really been looking as a business at consumers in lower tier cities. Really, they're providing big growth opportunities for brands that enter into that market with increased purchasing power, and as well as a closer alignment to some of the values that are coming along with those brands."

"I mean, any global brand, whether it's Mintel, market intelligence, or whether it's automotive, retail, food and beverage, if you're a global brand, you should definitely have a focus on China," Nelson added.

John McLean, newly appointed chair of the Institute of Directors (IoD) for the City of London, told Xinhua as Britain has left the European Union, it needs to look East.

McLean noted that the emerging middle class in China is attractive to British enterprises.

McLean said things are set to change as tourism resumes with improvements not only in economic cooperation but also in terms of bilateral understanding.

"I strongly believe that in a post-COVID era, China again will be that engine," he said, adding that Britain and China will find a way forward as businesses look for a long-term goal.

China is "wonderful and brilliant" on its carbon emission commitments and the City of London looks forward to continuing strong relationship and strengthening green collaboration with Chinese partners, said William Russell, lord mayor of the City of London.

"It's very important to strengthen the collaboration between the two sides," the mayor told Xinhua in a recent video interview. "One of the areas that we're very keen to strengthen is around green finance."

Talking about the collaboration with Chinese partners in green finance, Russell said, "I think China has made great progress, and it's moving very fast, and we will continue to work with China to help with that progress."

The China International Import Expo (CIIE) has given great access to many Scottish businesses to learn about the Chinese market, and it really has been "an eye-opening experience" for them, Kevin Liu, senior China representative for Scottish Development International (SDI), told Xinhua in a recent interview.

The SDI, Scotland's trade and foreign direct investment agency, will attend the 4th CIIE in eastern Chinese city Shanghai, which is just around half a month away for the second year running.

Speaking of China's recovery from the COVID-19 hit, Liu said, "You're seeing the strength of the rebound of the Chinese retail market, especially the role that e-commerce played in helping ensure that goods and services are still moving across as a fast market."

"The fact (is) that China's domestic market is still so resilient despite numerous external and internal shocks," said Liu. "I think China's market would become even more important, not only for Scotland, but also the rest of the world." Enditem

中国女排3:0横扫哥伦比亚队迎世锦赛两连胜

1.贾跃亭发微博:这次拨乱反正是FF又一个重大拐点

2.普京给予斯诺登俄公民身份 美方:斯诺登或被征召参战

3.走进荆山楚水 共享一季丰收喜悦!湖北发布“丰收的湖北”10条精品旅游线路

4.非法持枪的“江西虎”被判死缓!通报中这两个词不常见

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