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COP26: Climate change - what do all the words mean?
COP26, the climate change conference taking place in the Scottish city of Glasgow, is right around the corner.
You're likely to hear a lot about the conference, but even if you're really interested in climate change, sometimes the scientific language used to talk about it can be tricky to understand.
That's where we come in! We've created this handy jargon-buster to explain some of the key terms you'll be hearing at COP26.
The planet's temperature is getting warmer. Scientists say that we need to stop the rise from getting over 1.5 degrees Celsius in order to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.
It is compared to pre-industrial times, which means before the industrial revolution, which was a period of technological advancement that saw the beginning of large scale carbon emissions by humans.
The average global temperature has already gone up by about 1 degree Celsius.
1.5 摄氏度 （1.5℃）
地球的温度正在持续升高。科学家认为，将全球平均气温上升幅度控制在 1.5 摄氏度以内将可避免出现气候变化带来的最坏后果；
This refers to the amount of carbon emitted over a certain period of time, for example, your carbon footprint is bigger if you drive somewhere, than if you walk.
Individuals and groups of people such as companies can have carbon footprints.
Products can also have a footprint, which refers to how much carbon is emitted when they are made.
If something is carbon neutral, it means that the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) it releases into the atmosphere is the same amount as it takes out. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major cause of climate change.
碳中和的意思是指某物质释放到大气中的二氧化碳 (CO2) 的量与其吸收的量相同。二氧化碳 (CO2) 是气候变化的主要原因。
Climate means patterns of weather over a long period of time. For example, the climate in the UK sees us getting mild and wet winters, and warm and dry summers.
Climate change means these patterns start to look different, and we can start to see extreme weather patterns emerging that we're not used to, such as heatwaves or long periods of heavy rain.
气候变化 （Climate Change）
This stands for Conference Of the Parties. It's the name of the annual climate change negotiations organised by the United Nations (UN). The meeting in Glasgow is the 26th time this has happened, so it is known as COP26.
Emissions are any releases of gases that contribute to global warming, such as CO2.
They can be smaller individual emissions such as from car engines, or they can be larger, such as those from coal-burning power stations.
In a feedback loop, the rising temperatures of Earth change the environment in ways that affect how quickly the planet gets warmer. Sometimes these changes make the temperatures rise faster, and this is called a positive feedback loop.
An example of this is the sea-ice in the Arctic. The big white ice spaces in this part of the world currently reflect the Sun's rays away, but when they melt and the surface colour becomes a darker blue or green, the Sun's rays start to get absorbed.
In short, less sea ice means more warming, which means more ice melts.
This is any technology that can help in the fight against climate change. Some people think that geo-engineering will be crucial in tackling climate change, but others believe that changing behaviours (like taking fewer flights) will be far more important.
This stands for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It's a group that was set up by the United Nations and World Meteorological Organisation.
Its role is to analyse scientific research on climate change.
全称是“政府间气候变化专门委员会”（Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change），由联合国和世界气象组织共同设立的科学机构。
Runaway climate change
Right now, scientists think we should be able to keep climate change under control, if we all make a number of changes.
However, there is a concern that if our climate keeps changing at its current rate, it will eventually reach a 'tipping point', after which it will be incredibly difficult to stop or reverse the effects of climate change.
In 2018, the IPCC said that global emissions must be reduced by 45% by 2030, and to net zero by 2050 to have a 50% chance of limiting temperature rises to 1.5C this century.
International leaders at the conference will be talking about how they plan to reach those targets.
气候变化失控（Runaway climate change）
2018 年，IPCC 表示，到 2030 年全球排放量必须减少 45%，到 2050 年达到净零排放量，才有 50% 的机会将本世纪气温上升限制在 1.5C。
Chinese footballers have to learn to deal with media, says former Chinese international******
BEIJING, Nov. 1 (Xinhua) -- Chinese football players have to come to terms with criticism from the media with a strong mentality, said former Chinese international Li Yi.。
Chinese players, especially the national team ones, tend to become the laughing stock of the fans when things go wrong with them, said the head coach of China's second-tier side Sichuan Jiuniu.。
"Above all, you need to be mentally strong to face the criticism. Otherwise, you probably cannot get over it," said Li.。
"When I was young, I could not figure out why others could get away with a mistake on the field while that could leave me having to face a flood of stick," he said.。
"But you have to get to grips with it, which in turn could help you develop a strong mentality," he added.。
Li made those comments when the Chinese national team is under fire after they won one and lost three of their first four games in the third round of Asian World Cup qualifiers.。
"The fact that you are being criticized means you are still being valued," Li noted. Enditem。
Michael Jordan sneakers sell for nearly $1.5 mn, an auction record******
A pair of sneakers worn by National Basketball Association superstar Michael Jordan early in his career sold for nearly US$1.5 million on Sunday, setting a record price at auction for game-worn footwear, Sotheby's said.
The white leather shoes with the red Nike swoosh and soles were worn by the iconic player in the fifth game of his rookie season with the Chicago Bulls, when Nike's Jordan-affiliated brand was only just taking off as a sensation both on and off the court.
"The most valuable sneakers ever offered at auction – Michael Jordan's regular season game-worn Nike Air Ships from 1984 – have just sold at US$1,472,000 in our luxury sale in Las Vegas," the auction house said in a statement on Twitter.
The astronomical price easily beat the record held by a pair of Nike Air Jordans which sold for US$615,000 in August 2020 at a Christie's auction.
Jordan's autographed size-13 lace-ups were in good overall condition, with signs of court wear and tear, Sotheby's said. The pair was a gift from the player to Tommie Tim III Lewis, who was a ball boy for the Denver Nuggets during the 1984-85 season.
The market for rare sports shoes is soaring. The record price for sneakers has been broken several times recently as what was seen as a niche market a decade ago now attracts interest from the general public as well as leading collectors.
And the market value of objects identified with the retired basketball superstar have skyrocketed since the release of "The Last Dance," an ESPN/Netflix documentary that chronicles the saga of Jordan and his Chicago Bulls.
The sneakers that went under the hammer on Sunday predate the first Air Jordans, the now-classic line that quickly morphed from popular basketball gear to sought-after streetwear worldwide.